the emperor has new clothes
bzr has just changed the base class for its test suite from ‘unittest.TestCase’ to ‘testtools.TestCase’. This change has cleaned up a bunch of test logic, deleted a significant amount of code (much of which was redundant with Python unittest) and added some useful and important features.
bzr has only been able to make this change due to testtools expanding its mission from a simple ‘aggregation of proven unittest extensions’ into one where new extensions that *make unittest more extensible*. My deepest thanks to Jonathan for permitting me to use testtools as the vehicle to put these extension-enabling-extensions (and for his patience in reviewing said changes!).
The change was pretty easy: The bulk of the changes were in bzrlib.tests and bzrlib.tests.test_selftest. I chose to cleanup an ugly API at the same time which added a little scattershot across a number of tests. And there are more changes that can be done to take better advantage of testtools – the amount of deleted and cleaned up code isn’t complete. Even so, its a pretty clear win:
18 files changed, 228 insertions(+), 496 deletions(-)
bzr had an implementation of TestCase.run. This function is the main workhorse of Python’s unittest module, and yet sadly it has to be replaced to change the exceptions that can be raised(to signal new outcomes), or to improve on test cleanup. Testtools provides an API to permit registering new exception types and handlers for them. Like python 2.7 testtools also provides the TestCase.addCleanup API, and these two things combined mean that bzr no longer needs to reimplement the run method.
For expected failures, bzr uses a helper method TestCase.expectFailure to perform an existing assertion and convert the test into an expected failure if that assertion does not trigger. This was another feature testtools already provides and thus got deleted.
All the custom code for skipping and expected failures got deleted, and the other outcomes bzr uses turned into extensions (as per the run discussion above).
In bzr test cases generate a log (because bzr generates a log) and previously the TestResult in bzrlib inspected each test that had been executed to extract the log. This was made simpler by using the details API that testtools provides (see testtools.TestCase.addDetail), which permits tests to add arbitrary data in a semi-structured fashion. This is supported by subunit and a long standing bug with bzr selftest --parallel was fixed as a result – logs from tests run in other processes are now carried across the process barrier intact and are presented cleanly.
Some other minor cleanups are in unittest compatibility code, where bzr would degrade gracefully with unittest runners, and testtools provides such logic comprehensively, so all that got deleted too.
I think the most significant new facility that testtools offers bzrlib is assertThat. This assertion is inspired by the very nice assertThat in JUnit (which has changed substantially since Python’s unittest was written based on it). This assertion separates the two concerns of ‘raise an exception’ and ‘decide if an exception should be raised’. The separation allows for better reuse of custom checking code, because it permits composition in a cleaner way than extra assertion methods permit. Testtools does not include many matchers as yet, but matchers are easy to write, and if one were to write a small adapter to the hamcrest library, there are a bunch of ready made matchers there (though they have a very Java feel – such as is not meaning is – which is why Testtools did not use that library).
Secondly, the addDetail API referenced above, in combination with testtools.TestCase.addOnException will permit capturing the entire working area when a test fails, something that developers currently have to fiddle about with breakpoints to achieve. This hasn’t been done, but is a straight forward patch I hope to do in the new year.
Lastly, Testtools offers testtools.TestCase.getUniqueInteger and testtools.TestCase.getUniqueString, which are not as yet used in bzr tests, but we may start using them soon.
Beyond that, the other features of testtools are already present in bzrlib, and we simply need to find and delete more duplicated code.